Tag Archives: coral bleaching

coral bleaching sun shield trial

Coral bleaching prevented through reef sun shield

A ‘sun shield’ made from an ultra-thin surface film is showing promise as a potential weapon in the fight to protect the Great Barrier Reef from the impacts of coral bleaching.

Great Barrier Reef Foundation Managing Director Anna Marsden said the results from a small-scale research trial led by the scientist who also developed Australia’s polymer bank notes were very encouraging.

The project was supported by The Tiffany & Co. Foundation, made possible through a grant to the University of Melbourne USA Foundation.

“We’ve partnered with scientists from the University of Melbourne and the Australian Institute of Marine Science to develop sun protection for the Reef,” Ms Marsden said.

“The ‘sun shield’ is 50,000 times thinner than a human hair and completely biodegradable, containing the same ingredient corals use to make their hard skeletons – calcium carbonate. It’s designed to sit on the surface of the water above the corals, rather than directly on the corals, to provide an effective barrier against the sun.

“While it’s still early days, and the trials have been on a small scale, the testing shows the film reduced light by up to 30%.

“Scientists tested the effectiveness of the one molecule thick film on seven different coral species in simulated coral bleaching event conditions at the Australian Institute of Marine Science’s National Sea Simulator (SeaSim).

“The surface film provided protection and reduced the level of bleaching in most species.”

With the surface film containing the same ingredient that corals use to make their skeletons, the research also showed the film had no harmful effects on the corals during the trials.

“This is a great example of developing and testing out-of-the-box solutions that harness expertise from different areas. In this case, we had chemical engineers and experts in polymer science working with marine ecologists and coral experts to bring this innovation to life,” Ms Marsden said.

“The project set out to explore new ways to help reduce the impact of coral bleaching affecting the Great Barrier Reef and coral reefs globally and it created an opportunity to test the idea that by reducing the amount of sunlight from reaching the corals in the first place, we can prevent them from becoming stressed which leads to bleaching.

“It’s important to note that this is not intended to be a solution that can be applied over the whole 348,000 square kilometres of Great Barrier Reef – that would never be practical. But it could be deployed on a smaller, local level to protect high value or high-risk areas of reef.

“The concept needs more work and testing before it gets to that stage, but it’s an exciting development at a time when we need to explore all possible options to ensure we have a Great Barrier Reef for future generations.”

The research team comprised of Professors Greg Qiao and David Solomon and Dr Joel Scofield from the University of Melbourne, Dr Emma Prime (formerly University of Melbourne, now Deakin University), and Dr Andrew Negri and Florita Flores from the Australian Institute of Marine Science. Professor Solomon (AC) was the winner of the Prime Minister’s Prize for Science in 2011 for his exceptional contributions to polymer science.

First published by the Great Barrier Reef Foundation 

top stories

Top stories of the year

Featured image above: AI progress makes history – #2 of the top stories in STEM from 2016.

1. New way to cut up DNA

On October 28, a team of Chinese scientists made history when they injected the first adult human with cells genetically modified via CRISPR, a low-cost DNA editing mechanism.

Part of a clinical trial to treat lung cancer, this application of CRISPR is expected to be the first of many in the global fight against poor health and disease. 

2. AI reads scientific papers, distils findings, plays Go

Artificially intelligent systems soared to new heights in 2016, taking it to number 2 on our list of top stories. A company called Iris created a new AI system able to read scientific papers, understand their core concepts and find other papers offering relevant information.

In the gaming arena, Google’s DeepMind AlphaGo program became the first AI system to beat world champion, Lee Se-dol, at the boardgame Go. Invented in China, Go is thought to be at least 2,500 years old. It offers so many potential moves that until this year, human intuition was able to prevail over the computing power of technology in calculating winning strategies. 

3. Scientists find the missing link in evolution

For a long time, the mechanism by which organisms evolved from single cells to multicellular entities remained a mystery. This year, researches pinpointed a molecule called GK-PID, which underwent a critical mutation some 800 million years ago.

With this single mutation, GK-PID gained the ability to string chromosomes together in a way that allowed cells to divide without becoming cancerous – a fundamental enabler for the evolution of all modern life. GK-PID remains vital to successful tissue growth in animals today. 

4. Data can be stored for 13.8 billion years

All technology is subject to degradation from environmental influences, including heat. This means that until recently, humans have been without any form of truly long-term data storage.  

Scientists from the University of Southampton made the top stories of 2016 when they developed a disc that can theoretically survive for longer than the universe has been in existence. Made of nano-structured glass, with the capacity to hold 360TB of data, and stable up to 1,000°C, the disc could survive for over 13.8 billion years. 

5. Mass coral bleaching of the Great Barrier Reef

The most severe bleaching ever recorded on the Great Barrier Reef occurred this year. Heavy loss of coral occurred across a 700km stretch of the northern reef, which had previously been the most pristine area of the 2300km world heritage site.

North of Port Douglas, an average of 67% of shallow-water corals became bleached in 2016. Scientists blame sea temperature rise, which was sharpest in the early months of the year, and which resulted in a devastating loss of algae that corals rely on for food. 

6. Climate protocol ratified – but Stephen hawking warns it may be too late

On the 4 November 2016, the Paris Agreement became effective. An international initiative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and control climate change, the Paris Agreement required ratification by at least 55 countries representing 55% of global emissions in order to become operational.

So far 117 countries have joined the cause, with Australia among them. But some of the world’s greatest minds, including Stephen Hawking, believe time is running out if the human race is to preserve its planet. 

7. Young people kick some serious science goals

A group of high schoolers from Sydney Grammar succeeded in recreating a vital drug used to treat deadly parasites, for a fraction of the market price.

The drug, known as Daraprim, has been available for 63 years and is used in the treatment of malaria and HIV. There was public outcry in September when Turing Pharmaceuticals raised the price of the drug from US$13.50 to US$750. 

In collaboration with the University of Sydney and the Open Source Malaria Consortium, a year 11 class at Sydney Grammar created the drug at a cost of only $2 per dose, and made their work freely available online.

8. Gravitational waves detected

Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity was confirmed in February, when scientists observed gravitational waves making ripples in space and time. 

Gravitational waves are thought to occur when two black holes merge into a single, much larger, black hole. They carry important information about their origins, and about gravity, that helps physicists better understand the universe. 

The gravitational waves were observed by twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory detectors in Louisiana and Washington. Australian scientists helped to build some of the instruments used in their detection.

9. Moving away from chemotherapy

Researchers at the University College London made a leap forward in cancer treatment when they found a way to identify cancer markers present across all cells that have grown and mutated from a primary tumour. They also succeeded in identifying immune cells able to recognise these markers and destroy the cancerous cells. 

This breakthrough opens the door not only for better immuno-oncology treatments to replace the toxic drugs involved in chemotherapy, but also for the development of personalised treatments that are more effective for each individual.

10. New prime number discovered

The seventh largest prime number ever found was discovered in November. Over 9.3 million digits long, the number 10223*231172165+1 was identified by researchers who borrowed the computer power of thousands of collaborators around the world to search through possibilities, via a platform called PrimeGrid. 

This discovery also takes mathematicians one step closer to solving the Sierpinski problem, which asks for the smallest, positive, odd number ‘k’ in the formula k x 2n + 1, where all components of the formula are non-prime numbers. After the discovery of the newest prime number, only five possibilities for the Sierpinski number remain.

– Heather Catchpole & Elise Roberts

If you enjoyed this article on the top stories of the year, you might also enjoy:

Gravity waves hello

Have a story we missed? Contact us to let us know your picks of the top stories in STEM in 2016.

citizen science

Citizen data monitors coral bleaching

Featured image above: a volunteer monitors coral bleaching using Coralwatch’s citizen science survey. Credit: Coralwatch

Who did the research?

CoralWatch, based at the University of Queensland and funded by multiple external organisations.

What is the citizen science project about?

CoralWatch is a citizen data (‘citizen science’) initiative to monitor coral health worldwide. It is the first attempt at providing useful data on coral reef health at large scale with non-invasive tools. Scientists, school groups, dive centres and tourists can measure coral bleaching using the  Coral Health Chart – a simple plastic square – and add their data to the CoralWatch database.

Coral bleaching occurs when increased water temperatures causes coral to expel their symbiotic algae that help absorb nutrients and provide corals vibrant  colour. Rising sea temperatures due to climate change have caused unprecedented levels of coral bleaching.

 

What is the real-life data impact of the research or project?

Since CoralWatch started in 2002, over 146,000 corals from 1,228 reefs have been surveyed across 70 countries. This data is freely available online for use in scientific analysis and for educational purposes such as school projects.

Several studies have used the CoralWatch data to track the status of coral reefs around the world. The project has also been instrumental in raising public concern on the severity of the ecosystem crisis many reefs are undergoing, such as Australia’s Great Barrier Reef.

Find out more – watch the CoralWatch video

 

Click here to visit the Coralwatch website.

Share your own story of data impact

Send ANDS your stories using the form on the main #dataimpact page, or help promote these stories on social media using the hashtag #dataimpact.

This article on citizen science was first published by the Australian National Data Service on 21 October 2016. Read the original article here.

You might also like:

Birth defects: a data discovery